The theory of comparative advantage of David Ricardo
Specializing in the production of goods having a maximum comparative advantage, benefit, and in the absence of absolute advantage. A country should specialize in the export of goods in whose production it has the greatest absolute advantage (if it has an absolute advantage in both goods), or the smallest absolute nepreimuschestvo (if it does not have an absolute advantage in any of the goods). Specialization in certain types of goods is profitable for each of these countries and leads to an increase in total production, there is motivation to trade even if one country has absolute advantage in the production of all goods to another country. An example in this case can serve as an exchange of English cloth for Portuguese wine, which brings benefits to both countries, even if the absolute costs of production and cloth, and wine in Portugal is lower than in England.